Webpack Encore

In a minimalistic setup, asset retrieval is fairly straightforward. We might just keep all of our Javascript files in a js/ directory directly under our public document root directory. Then the URL is simply http://example.com/js/whatever.js, and our webserver matches the URL path /js/whatever.js to the filesystem path /path/to/document/root/js/whatever.js, and places the contents of that file in the HTTP response. In most web servers this happens so transparently, that a lot of new developers assume that they're somehow giving direct access to the server's file system. In reality the web server is mediating the interaction, and generating an HTTP response using the contents of these files.

In UserFrosting, the Sprinkle system makes this a little more complicated. Each Sprinkle can contribute its own assets to the application (typically under a app/assets/ subdirectory), and it should be possible for a Sprinkle to override assets in another Sprinkle that was loaded earlier in the stack. Plus, since the Sprinkle is not part of our code, but loaded as a normal dependency, the assets can be hard to locate.

Modern frameworks and languages also complicate things. For example, Vue.js, React, Sass and Less requires a building or compilation step, powered by npm and Node.js scripts. Third party packages can be managed through npm, similar to how Composer manage PHP dependencies.

For these reasons, UserFrosting makes use of Symfony's Webpack Encore to handle all frontend related task. Webpack Encore is a simpler way to integrate Webpack. It provides a clean & powerful API for bundling JavaScript modules, pre-processing CSS & JS and compiling and minifying assets.

Compiling assets through Webpack Encore basically does :

  1. It copies statics assets from individual Sprinkles to the public web directory, so that they can be served directly by the web server instead of having to go through UserFrosting;
  2. It concatenates assets within each asset entries into a single file, reducing the number of requests that the client needs to make. This makes the page load more quickly for the client;
  3. It can process Sass or Less files into a compiled css file;
  4. It can process Vue and React files;
  5. It minifies CSS and Javascript assets, so that they are smaller and can be loaded more quickly by the client;
  6. In production, enables versioning of each assets file, to better manage caching by the browser;
  7. And so much more.

Npm and packages.json

Webpack Encore, as with most frontend dependencies, is installed by npm. Fortunately for you, you should already have Node.js and npm installed if you completed the UserFrosting installation process successfully!

Why do we use Node.js, anyway, instead of a PHP-based asset management tools?

Because over time, npm imposed itself as the defacto manager for javascript based project. Since most frontend packages relies on Javascript, and with the arrival of more complex framework, it makes sense to use tools for these tasks in a common language. No matter which server-side technology a developer uses, they all have to deal with Javascript sooner or later. Thus, Javascript-based tools are the most popular and actively developed and maintained options.

Where Composer has it's composer.json file to defines the project dependencies, npm has the package.json file. The default UserFrosting package.json looks like this :

{
    "dependencies": {
        "sprinkle-admin": "github:userfrosting/sprinkle-admin",
        "theme-adminlte": "github:userfrosting/theme-adminlte"
    },
    "devDependencies": {
        "@symfony/webpack-encore": "^4.4.0",
        "file-loader": "^6.2.0",
        "sass": "^1.51.0",
        "webpack-notifier": "^1.14.1"
    },
    "scripts": {
        "dev-server": "encore dev-server",
        "dev": "encore dev",
        "watch": "encore dev --watch",
        "build": "encore production --progress"
    }
}
  1. dependencies : These are the client dependencies, which are will eventually be passed to the Browser. For example, JQuery is a dependencies, as it will be used by the browser;
  2. devDependencies : These are CLI dependencies. They are required to run the building process;
  3. scripts : npm command alias for dependencies commands.

In the example above, you can see both the Admin Sprinkle and AdminLTE Theme are included as dependencies. While theses are also included by Composer, it's necessary to include them also here, so their assets can be accessed by npm and Webpack Encore. The dev dependencies includes, among others, Webpack Encore. It will then be installed when running npm install, php bakery assets:build or php bakery assets:install. Finally, the scripts section expose the encore build tasks.

Dependencies installation will be automatically handled by the php bakery bake or php bakery assets:build commands. Alternatively, you can still uses the typical npm commands from the command line:

$ npm install

# or

$ npm update

The same goes for installing you own dependencies, which should be done using npm command directly. For example :

npm i bootstrap --save

As with Composer, npm update should be run after any changes made manually to package.json

Webpack Encore configuration

Webpack Encore configuration can be found in /webpack.config.js. The default configuration found in the UserFrosting Skeleton Repo is pretty self explanatory, so be sure to check it out. For more information about Encore Configuration, check out the Symfony Documentation.

The default configuration looks similar to this. features can be enabled or disabled by commenting/uncommenting lines, or adding new configuration.

const Encore = require('@symfony/webpack-encore');

// List dependent sprinkles and local entries files
const sprinkles = {
    AdminLTE: require('theme-adminlte/webpack.entries'),
    Admin: require('sprinkle-admin/webpack.entries'),
    App: require('./webpack.entries')
}

// Merge dependent Sprinkles entries with local entries
let entries = {}
Object.values(sprinkles).forEach(sprinkle => {
    entries = Object.assign(entries, sprinkle);
});

// Manually configure the runtime environment if not already configured yet by the "encore" command.
// It's useful when you use tools that rely on webpack.config.js file.
if (!Encore.isRuntimeEnvironmentConfigured()) {
    Encore.configureRuntimeEnvironment(process.env.UF_MODE || 'dev');
}

Encore
    // directory where compiled assets will be stored
    .setOutputPath('public/assets')

    // public path used by the web server to access the output path
    .setPublicPath('/assets/')

    // only needed for CDN's or sub-directory deploy
    //.setManifestKeyPrefix('build/')

    // Include all entries
    .addEntries(entries)

    // Copy Favicons
    .copyFiles({ from: './app/assets/favicons', to: 'favicons/[path][name].[hash:8].[ext]' })

    // Copy images
    .copyFiles({ from: './app/assets/images', to: 'images/[path][name].[hash:8].[ext]' })

    // When enabled, Webpack "splits" your files into smaller pieces for greater optimization.
    .splitEntryChunks()

    // will require an extra script tag for runtime.js
    // but, you probably want this, unless you're building a single-page app
    .enableSingleRuntimeChunk()
    // .disableSingleRuntimeChunk()

    /*
     * FEATURE CONFIG
     *
     * Enable & configure other features below. For a full
     * list of features, see:
     * https://symfony.com/doc/current/frontend.html#adding-more-features
     */
    .cleanupOutputBeforeBuild()
    .enableBuildNotifications()
    .enableSourceMaps(!Encore.isProduction())

    // enables hashed filenames (e.g. app.abc123.css)
    .enableVersioning(Encore.isProduction())

    // enables @babel/preset-env polyfills
    .configureBabelPresetEnv((config) => {
        config.useBuiltIns = 'usage';
        config.corejs = 3;
    })

    // enables Sass/SCSS support
    .enableSassLoader()

    // uncomment if you use TypeScript
    //.enableTypeScriptLoader()

    // uncomment to get integrity="..." attributes on your script & link tags
    // requires WebpackEncoreBundle 1.4 or higher
    //.enableIntegrityHashes(Encore.isProduction())

    // uncomment if you're having problems with a jQuery plugin
    .autoProvidejQuery()
;

module.exports = Encore.getWebpackConfig();

Compiling assets

To build the assets, run the following Bakery command :

$ php bakery assets:build

The resulting compiled assets will be stored in /public/assets/, as defined in webpack.config.js.

The watch option can be used when actively working on a file. It will compile assets and automatically re-compile when a file change:

$ php bakery assets:build --watch

# or 

$ php bakery assets:webpack --watch

Whenever you make changes in your webpack.config.js file, you must stop and restart encore when using the "watch" option.

To compile assets for a production environment, simply use:

$ php bakery assets:build --production

# or 

$ php bakery assets:webpack --production

If you have shell access (for example, using a VPS), you can build production assets directly on your host server as part of your deployment process. Otherwise, you can build them locally before transferring your application to the host server. Unlike Composer, frontend dependencies doesn't depend on any server configuration, so it is safe to build locally and upload the resulting build.

Alternatively, the underlying npm scripts can also be executed directly. However, be aware some preflight check are executed by Bakery (e.g.: make sure webpack.config.js exist), and won't be executed if running the scripts directly.

# Compile assets once (Same as `php bakery assets:webpack`)
npm run dev

# Compile assets and automatically re-compile when files change
# (Same as php bakery assets:webpack --watch)
npm run watch

# Compile for production
# (Same as php bakery assets:webpack --production)
npm run build

In the next pages, we'll see how you can use the compiled assets inside your templates and go in details through the entry system.